МАКАЕВ Ханиф Фахретдинович
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры гуманитарных наук филиала Уфимского государственного нефтяного технического университета в г. Стерлитамаке
МАКАЕВА Гузаль Зайнагиевна
кандидат философских наук, доцент кафедры гуманитарных наук филиала Уфимского государственного нефтяного технического университета в г. Стерлитамаке
БИКБОВА Гульшан Рушановна
студент филиала Уфимского государственного нефтяного технического университета в г. Стерлитамаке
The Federal Law "On Education" clearly defined the essence of the education as combination of knowledge, abilities, and skills, treasure objectives, activity experience and competences, and tasks of higher education to prepare highly qualified specialists in all spheres of life. Teaching the humanitarian subjects namely the English language at higher schools is gaining particular significance. The increasing role of teaching a foreign language to students at a higher school is caused 'by integration of worldwide long-term and large-scale scientific and technological labour, intensifying the international division of labour at every stage of scientific industrial process, widening the political economic contacts all over the world, necessity of carrying out scientific researches and developments, organizing common enterprises and meetings of specialists from different countries'1. Nowadays especially demanded are competitive, professional, and active specialists having communicative competence at a modern labour market.
It is difficult to re-evaluate the communicative competence in broadening international contacts and setting up partner relations with foreign companies and firms by Russia, which participates in world political, economical, and social processes. Requirements are put forward to professional training of specialists during which forming of communicative competence and developing of communicative abilities are regarded as psychological, linguistic, cultural, and pedagogical abilities.
Communicative competence of a personality is considered to be knowledge and understanding the norms and rules of communication as well as of non verbal language of communication; high level of speech development, letting a person give and reproduce the information during the process of communication;
ability to contact with people considering their sex, age, social, and status characteristics; ability to persuade the interlocutor; ability to appreciate the interlocutor's personality in a right way as a competitor or a partner.
Analysis of scientific methodical literature, experiences of foreign language teachers at higher schools, as well as the authors' experience show that forming a foreign language professional communicative competence of students at a higher school will be successful if all the effective methods of pedagogical diagnosing are used.
So, we believe that considering the elementary level of professionally oriented knowledge of a foreign language of students at pre-higher schools just before they start studying a foreign language at a higher school by the method of diagnosing will benefit to forming their foreign language professional communicative competence.
It has been proved that foreign language training of students is very problematic when they go from one educational institution of a lower level to another one of a higher level. The fact of presence of 'breaking off' of foreign language training at different level higher schools forces the researches to look for effective ways for realization the continuity principle of teaching contents of a foreign language at this educational institutions.
Continuity as a general didactic principle is considered in the works of V.G. Ananyev, V. S. Bezrukov, Yu. A. Kustov, P. N. Oleinik, N. Yu. Postalyuk, etc. The role of continuity in reinforcing knowledge, abilities, and skills, individuality qualities, their consecutive development and improvement gained earlier was shown by such great teachers of the past like Ya. A. Komensky, Zh. Zh. Russo, G. Pestalotzy. Ya. A. Komensky stated that 'the one who is going to build a house should start it not from its roof, but from its foundation. Everything is caught together, connected with each other, one on the base of the other, just this way, but not differently'. Consequently, the object of the research in this work is entrance testing of professionally oriented training and the process of forming a foreign language professional communicative competence of students organized on its base.
It should be underlined that there is inadequacy of using the method of testing only in controlling the learners' knowledge. As the subject 'Foreign Language' is both the aim, and the means of training, it would be fair to tell about teaching testing which intends to integrate the process of training and the control of training closely.
Thus, the pedagogical diagnose in favour of both teachers, and students should secure the right defining of results of former stages of education on the base of which improving the process of further training taking into consideration mental, psychological, and age peculiarities and wishes of students on the principle of differentiation and individualization at all training levels should take place.
Nowadays test control is becoming widespread by valuing students' knowledge level. One of the reasons of why this kind of control is gaining such popularity was introduction of United State
Examination for school leavers to enter a higher school, as well as transition to two level system of education, the important part of which being testing for students during the period of taking credits and exams.
Despite its being a traditional method, testing is considered to be one of the most effective means of diagnosing the results of previous stages of training a foreign language. But unfortunately too little attention is paid to practical and methodical instructions on organizing test controls, and at a higher school there are no real tests at all for checking the initial level of professionally oriented teaching a foreign language to the students with the purpose of further forming their foreign language professional communicative competence. So, for forming foreign language professional communicative competence at a higher school through the professionally oriented foreign language training successfully we have created a set of entrance tests which serve to define knowledge level of students in connection with their future professional activity and simultaneous enlarging their knowledge, abilities, and skills.
Thus, during the process of taking the entrance testing not only the results of training were revealed, but also the process of introducing, reinforcing, and revising by the students the material suggested took place. In other words, there occurred improving the students' knowledge.
The material for producing tests was taken from high school textbooks with professionally oriented content in technological sphere.
The research was carried out at three stages: stating stage, forming stage, and controlling one. The parameters for conducting the research were knowledge of professionally oriented vocabulary, ability to react correctly in the situations of professional communication, skills by working with texts on the specialty being gained. While being assessed the results came from dividing up the students to four levels of training: 1. high level - 95-100%, 2. medium level - 75-94%, 3. below medium level - 55-74%, 4. low level - 55% and lower. The research involved 116 people; all of them being first year students of the Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in the City of Sterlitamak.
At the stating stage of the research the students were offered the author's tests which include such sections and components of the subject's content as vocabulary, oral speech and reading with deriving the main information. The results of the stage were distributed in percentage in the following way: the quantity of students with high level training constituted the number 9, with medium level the percentage was 43%, with the level lower than the medium one there were 36% of students, and 12% of those being experimented had low level training.
Forming the knowledge, the abilities, and the skills on the sections and components of the subject's content mentioned above was taking place on the base of talks on professional topics such as clarifying the time of negotiations, discussing the aim of the meeting, changing the date of the goods delivery, and so on. The experimental training also included professionally oriented texts, tests, oral questioning.
At the controlling stage the results of forming a foreign language professional communicative competence of the students were tested by five marks, only satisfactory, good, and excellent marks being selected. During this process considered were the changes in one or another parameter of a foreign language professional communicative competence of the students of the control and experimental groups. The results gained give evidence about the students who have shown best knowledge, abilities, and skills on the parameters of the experiment. If we consider this in percentage, the number of students of the first and second groups increased to 7% in each one, the number of students of the third and fourth groups lessened to 6% и 8%, accordingly.
In our opinion, the dynamics of main parameters in an experimental group could be explained by the fact that during carrying out the testing the students of the experimental groups have already shown not only their knowledge, abilities, and skills, but to a certain extent they have enlarged their previous results. The teacher could get precise information about the real state of foreign language knowledge of the students that is very important for continuing further teaching the foreign language to the students at the higher school. The level of knowledge of control group students remained none clarified, what makes it hard to trace the dynamics of their further development, consequently, effectiveness of their training.
The analysis of the experiment's materials received allows us to come to a conclusion that organizing the entrance diagnosing and forming a foreign language professional communicative competence of the students on its base will give great positive effect by making controlling tests correctly, by selection of professionally oriented teaching material, and by methodologically correct organization of the teaching process.
The results of the research have shown that for forming a foreign language professional communicative competence of students in a proper way it is necessary to reveal the initial level of their professionally oriented language training with simultaneous developing their knowledge, abilities, and skills during the period of testing. On the base of these data there should be organized teaching in the form of talks, oral questionings, and reading professionally oriented texts which would allow to realize not only communicative but also professional training of a future specialist as a whole.